A hydroelectric basin in a place where water collects. It can be natural, like a lake, or artificial if some sort of construction, such as a dam, blocks the flow of water. Shape and size is determined by the geological features of the surrounding area, while the branches of the hydrographic network depend on precipitation, soil type, vegetation and human activity.
There’s usually a dam in the case of an artificial hydroelectric basin. In addition to creating a reservoir of water, dams have the positive effect of increasing height differences that can be exploited when the water falls. Depending on how far it is from the power station, the water can be channeled directly through a penstock, or first transported via canals or galleries.
Every dam has hydraulic works that regulate the hydroelectric basin’s water levels, for example a spillway, i.e. a canal that acts as a hydraulic bypass so water can drain if levels exceed the maximum limit.
Hydroelectric basins act as reservoirs of soon-to-be renewable energy, controlling the release of water in accordance with demand. Creating a basin also settles the water. While the water rests inside the basin, most impurities and debris settle to the bottom, far from the intake zone. Incoming water filtration systems ensure cleanliness in any case, so that the hydroelectric power station can operate safely.